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          Главная  //   СПЕЦИАЛИСТЫ СОВЕТУЮТ  //   Lamps and lighting for horticulture
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     Lamps and lighting for horticulture 



    GE Lighting
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    Lamps and lighting for horticulture
    Технические характеристики Lucalox PSL


    GE lamps enable lighting regimes that assist the natural cycles of plants. GE horticultural lamps are colour balanced for growth and shape.

    Extending daylight



    Growth and development of plants and vegetables is strongly influenced by the quality and amount of light they receive, and the cycle of day and night. Artificial lighting therefore plays a significant role in the horticultural industry, where it enables producers to extend and control the periods of plant growth. GE horticultural lamps allow growers to be less reliant on daylight and improve their productivity.


    PAR



    PAR in relation to wavelength. Plants have different sensitivity to different wavelengths.

    Photosynthesis Active Radiation (PAR, measured in micromole/sec) is essential for plant growth. GE Lucalox™ PSL (PhotoSynthesis Light) high pressure sodium lamps are designed to produce the best possible PAR performance and this performance is covered by warranty.

    Spectral range

    Plants respond to light of varying colour. In general, red light causes plants to become tall and “leggy” while blue light, when used alone, can cause low, stocky growth. A proper balance of red and blue energy produces plants that have normal growth and shape.

    Effect of spectral range

    UV-B
    280-320 nm
    Deleterious for growth.

    UV-C
    320-400 nm
    Might have additive effect to blue radiation.

    BLUE
    400-500 nm
    Necessary for elongation control.

    GREEN
    500-600 nm
    Less important in photosynthesis than red spectral range for certain plants.

    RED
    600-700 nm
    Optimisation is necessary because unoptimised red portion will cause abnormal development.

    IR (Far-red)
    700-750 nm
    Enhancement of flowering & stem elongation.

    Research Examples

    Cucumber

    Blue only or green only irradiation did not cause development. Optimal growth was found when the irradiation of the plants contained 15-20% blue irradiation, rest of the spectrum was balanced with green and red irradiation.

    Tomato

    High productivity requires the dominance of the 600nm-700nm red part in irradiation spectrum. Saturation of the crop yield was achieved with 60-65% red irradiation, the rest of the spectrum was balanced by blue and green irradiation.

    GE lighting for fruit and vegetables

    Growers of food plants find artificial light just as important as it is for flowering plants. Artificial light can improve the yield of a crop, and its quality. And, as with flowering plants, it enables growth to be timed to meet market demands.
    When an artificial lighting regime is applied to food crops, these are some of the benefits:

    - Plants can be used for over a longer period
    - In winter, fruit can be produced with taste to match summer fruit
    - Production can start earlier
    - Year-round cultivation is possible

    It is therefore possible for growers to enhance product quality and take advantage of marketing opportunities throughout the year.

    Nature’s rhythms

    GE lamps can:

    Supplement daylight

    Extend day length

    Extend growing season

    Completely replace daylight



    Photoperiodism

    The relative length of day and night and the seasons is important to plants. The number of hours of darkness in a 24-hour cycle is an important factor in determining blossoming and growing time.
    Night length triggers seed germination, tuber and bulb formation, and other growth characteristics such as colour, enlargement of leaves and stem size and shape. This rhythmic characteristic is called photoperiodism and is of great value to growers.
    Plants can be classified according to photoperiodicity.

    Short-day (long-night)
    Long-day (short-night)
    Indeterminate or day-neutral


    The perennial Chrysanthemum and the Poinsettia, which flower in the autumn, are examples of short-day (long-night) plants. They fail to flower when the day length, or period of light, is extended beyond a critical value.

    Long-day plants, such as the China Aster and Tuberous Rooted Begonia, flower only with a day length longer than a critical value.

    Day-neutral plants, such as the Rose and Carnation are not limited by photoperiod.

    Understanding these principles enables commercial growers to use artificial light profitably, so that flowering and vegetable harvesting can be timed for markets.

    Putting light into action



    Short day length

    The Perennial Chrysanthemum is a short day length plant that will not flower when the day is long (short night). To postpone flowering, Chrysanthemum growers, instead of lengthening the day, interrupt the night for about four hours. This makes the night appear short to plants, which then continue to grow vegetatively instead of starting to flower.

    A more economical method of postponing flowering of chrysanthemums is to apply cycles of light, switching light on for 10 minutes and off for 50 minutes, for four hours during the night, instead of applying light continuously. This is cyclic lighting. It is an effective way of growing flowers. If lighting levels are higher then the grower will see better stem and flower quality and less opportunity for disease.

    Long day length

    The China Aster is a typical long-day (short-night) plant. Long-day plants can be brought to flower ahead of the normal time by lengthening the day. Relatively low intensities of light are enough to induce flowering, when applied early in the morning or at the end of the day. A dark-period interruption - from a few minutes to a few hours - as with other long-day plants, effectively induces flowering just as it inhibits flowering of short-day plants.

    Poinsettias must have complete and continuous darkness for about 12 hours a day in order to flower. Even 1 minute of light in the middle of the dark period will prevent their flowering.

    Tuberous Begonias flower only when daily dark periods are short - less than 12 hours, but they require long dark periods for best production of tubers. Flowering of tomatoes, however, is not influenced by photoperiod.

    Plant colour and leaf formation

    Photoperiod also influences plant responses such as colour and formation of the leaves.

    Coleus, for example, under continuous lighting, produces dark red leaves with bright green edges. Less than 10 hours of light per day results in less sturdy plants and paler colours. The tulip bulb is the main source of food reserve, and the light is needed mainly to develop the plants’ green colour. Stems attain their greatest length if grown under lighting.

    GE lamp range

    Lucalox™ PSL developed for greenhouse use
    Other solutions include fluorescent and incandescent

    GE High Intensity Discharge (HID), incandescent and fluorescent lamps all have uses in horticulture.

    HID lamps can be used for large area lighting either as a supplement or total replacement for daylight. Standard incandescent lamps are usually used for cyclic lighting both in greenhouses and outdoors. Linear fluorescent lamps may be used to propagate bedding plants in bench greenhouses. Compact fluorescent lamps can also be used, mounted vertically, base up, in between plants.

    HID lamps




    HID lamps can be used for large area lighting either as a supplement or total replacement for daylight.

    High Pressure Sodium (HPS)

    Specially developed for greenhouses, GE’s LucaloxTM PSL high pressure sodium (HPS) range offers the twin benefits of stable lumen maintenance and a full spectrum content that promotes photosynthesis. LucaloxTM PSL lamps provide an average 5% additional PAR.

    Ceramic Metal Halide (CMH)

    GE CMH lamps also have many benefits for horticulturalists. With a stronger blue light content, they favour seeding and vegetative growth. They can be used in a mixed scheme in which HPS and CMH are switched or combined to give growers maximum control over their crop. They have excellent lumen maintenance characteristics.

    Other lighting solutions




    Standard incandescent lamps are usually used for cyclic lighting both in greenhouses and outdoors. These lamps supply the relatively low levels of light needed, installation costs are low, and light is rich in the red energy to which plants are sensitive for photoperiodic response.

    Fluorescent lamps may be used to propagate bedding plants in bench greenhouses. Mounted under the benches, they furnish light energy for propagation in areas that might otherwise be used only for storage. Fluorescent lamps may also be used to extend day length in small greenhouses.

    Mixed regimes

    For accurate control of periodicity and cycling, lamp types can be mixed. For example, high intensity discharge lamps in overhead luminaires can be used to promote growth, with incandescent lamps added for photoperiodic or cyclic control.

    LucaloxTM PhotoSynthesis Lamp




    Specially developed for greenhouses, LucaloxTM PSL high pressure sodium lamps offer the benefits of stable lumen and micromole maintenance and a full spectrum content that promotes photosynthesis. Photosynthesis Active Radiation (PAR, measured in micromole/sec) is essential for plant growth. LucaloxTM is available in three power strengths, 400W, 600W and 750W.

    Leading Technology

    Simple light or lumen maintenance is not enough to create plant growth. Plants require a certain radiation level to help with photosynthesis. The Lucalox™ PSL lamp has been specially developed to provide stable lumen maintenance and increased PAR output.

    Radiation (PAR)

    Measured in micromole/sec, the increased PAR output of the Lucalox™ XO PSL lamp best simulates natural daylight to maintain plant growth under artificial lighting conditions. The PAR value of 400-750W LucaloxTM PSL products is on average 5% higher than the standard GE LucaloxTM products.

    High performance

    As well as the scientific technology of light output, reliability and performance have also been key factors in the development of the Lucalox™ PSL lamp range. Robust construction, reliable starting technology and improved lumen maintenance ensure peace of mind against early lamp failures and provide the consistency demanded for perfect growing conditions








    PSL technology





    Specially developed for greenhouses

    Provide an average 5% additional PAR (Photosynthesis Active Radiation)

    Stable lumen maintenance

    Full spectrum

    Photosynthesis active

    400W, 600W and 750W






    Superb performance and high reliability
    – GE’s advanced sodium resistant ceramic helps eliminate early failures to give a rated service life of 10,000 hours for the LucaloxTM PSL products.
    – In order to achieve maximum performance, GE recommends lamp replacement when the Rated Service Life is reached.
    – The lamps use extra rugged monolithic arc tubes equipped with GE Reliable Starting Technology which provides continuous high performance.

    High xenon-fill gas delivers:
    – extra light and PAR (Photosynthesis Active Radiation) output.
    – more resistance to mains voltage fluctuations.

    Zirconium gettering system improves PAR maintenance that drives constant and uniform plant growth.

    The diameter of the frame wire in the lamp has been minimised to reduce shading in the installation without affecting the robustness of the lamp.

    Monolithic arc tube construction for durability and lumen maintenance.






    Other lighting solutions





    GE’s extensive lamps range includes many products which offer advantages to horticulture. These include incandescent reflector lamps, fluorescent tubes and metal halide. Qualities such as energy efficiency and long life are inherent in all GE lamps. However, there are other features that are beneficial to both horticultural luminaire manufacturers and to users. Following is a selection of product highlights. However, there are many more and we will be pleased to advise about specific requirements.

    T5 linear fluorescent




    Linear fluorescent lamps are available in a wide range of sizes, wattages and colours, including daylight. The T5 range, at just 16mm diameter, delivers the light of much larger wattage systems and make use of GE’s Starcoat™ coating to provide unrivalled colour rendering and lumen maintenance. (CRI 85 and lumen maintenance, 94% at 40% rated life.)

    The operating cost of these lamps is relatively low and their Rated Average Life is 30,000 hours.

    Available in two ranges, optimised for either efficiency or output

    Up to 104 lumens per Watt
    High output range
    Up to 7000 lumens

    Both ranges offer:

    Peak lumen output at 35°C for optimum light output within fittings
    Designed for HF operation: higher lamp efficacy and lower ballast losses




    Compact fluorescent

    BIAX™ compact fluorescent lamps have the size advantage of incandescent lamps with the energy saving and life benefits of fluorescent.

    20% of the energy consumption of incandescent lamps

    Up to 15 times longer life than incandescents

    Variety of shapes and sizes, including reflector version



    Incandescent

    GE incandescent lamps have been developed and researched over a century and the current range represent stateof- the-art lamps for commercial and residential applications.

    Incandescent lamps are commonly available in a large variety of size, shape, colour and wattage.

    Long Life GLS lamps up to 2500 hours are available from 40 to 100 Watts.

    Extra Long Life GLS lamps up to 5000-6000 hours are available in 40 and 60 Watts.




    Reflector Lamps

    A full range of reflector lamps in a variety of sizes with up to 3500 hours life including neodymium reflectors.






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